Image from page 204 of "Penman's Art Journal" (1909)The successful firms didn’t just hire talent, but incorporated it within their leadership. The center-of-gravity companies relied on a shared leadership model, where decisions were made by two or more top executives. While traditionally Japanese companies of the period were led by members of rich merchant families, the more successful companies broke with convention and promoted university-educated engineers and manager into their top ranks based on talent, not family.

Thomas W. Malone

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